1. Logic and Critical Thinking
Critical thinking is different from logical thinking. Logical thinking is like math: it involves formal reasoning skills that can only be learned later in life. In contrast, critical thinking builds on everyday reasoning.
So parents should guide their children’s critical thinking development from a very young age.
Formal logic is an important part of critical thinking, but ultimately critical thinking involves habits and skills going far beyond the domain of logic. Children’s critical faculties, therefore, cannot be built from logical analysis, but rather develop out of everyday reasoning.
There are three main factors to keep in mind in differentiating logic from the everyday reasoning that underpins critical thinking.
First, logic is not a natural human trait. If logic were natural, we wouldn’t have to learn how to reason, and math wouldn’t be considered so difficult in school.
The natural reasoning displayed by children is often founded on sensory experiences and marred by the cognitive biases discussed in the introduction.
Consider this example. Someone says: “If it rains, I’ll take my umbrella with me.” And then a moment later adds: “It’s not raining.” What may we conclude?
The vast majority of people — including both adults and children old enough to understand the question — will conclude that the person will not take an umbrella
In context, that is a reasonable conclusion to draw.
Logic is not natural to humans and can only be acquired through learning.
But from a purely logical perspective, it does not follow. The fact that if it does rain, the speaker will take an umbrella implies nothing, strictly speaking, about what will happen in the case that it is not raining.
Logic, the cognitive capacity for formal and reliable deduction, is not natural to humans and can only be acquired through learning—and only at an age when the cognitive system and brain development allow for such learning (between ages 12 and 15).
Second, although logic is not natural, it can be taught with varying degrees of success, according to personality, cognitive profile, and so on. Multiple developmental psychology studies since Piaget have shown that our cognitive system can only become proficient in logical analysis later on, and with the correct training.
Third, if parents train children from ages five to nine to make more or less complex logical deductions, no deep knowledge is acquired. At a young age, the cognitive system does not yet have the capacity to discern logical invariables (i.e., the ability to reproduce a line of reasoning in a variable context).
This is why mathematical principles are only explained to children when they are 13 to 14 years old. But again parents can encourage the basics of critical thinking at an early age by promoting social factors like self-esteem.
Logic and Brain Development
Complex reasoning predominantly takes place in the prefrontal cortex and areas of the brain devoted to language. Language development is, of course, closely linked to explicit learning, as well as to implicit stimulation.
But reasoning requires more than just language skills. The prefrontal cortex carries out what are known as executive functions. It controls concentration, planning, decision-making, and many other functions. These allow us to break down complex tasks into a series of simpler tasks. Reasoning requires a strategy that breaks things down. The prefrontal lobe is a cerebral zone that only matures neurologically after the age of 20.
Logic is neither natural nor easy. Its development requires a comfortable handling of language and the capacity for problem-solving in the prefrontal cortex. Where are we now? Where do we want to go? How can we get there?
Case Study 1